Plant Breeding Division
The major achievements of Plant Breeders of BRRI are the development of high-yielding modern varieties (MVs) of rice both for favorable and unfavorable ecosystem. BRRI has so far released 100 MVs (94 inbred and 6 hybrids):
- 42 for Boro (Including both for Boro and Aus)
- 24 for Aus (Broadcast and Transplanted)
- 48 for Aman
- 12 for Boro and Aus
- 1 for Boro, Aus and Aman
Plant Breeders have given successful efforts to develop modern varieties for stress ecosystem like salinity, submergence and drought. They have developed BRRI dhan47, BRRI dhan61 and BRRI dhan67 for boro season which could tolerate 12-14 dS/m salinity at seedling stage and also withstand 6-8 dS/m salinity during whole life cycle. Nonetheless, BR23, BRRI dhan40, BRRI dhan41, BRRI dhan53, BRRI dhan54 and BRRI dhan73 are the salinity tolerant varieties for T. Aman with 8 dS/m salinity tolerance at reproductive stage. Three submergence tolerant varieties BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan52 and BRRI dhan79 have been developed that can survive two to three weeks of submergence. Whereas, four varieties viz. BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, BRRI dhan66 and BRRI dhan71 have been developed which are suitable for drought-prone areas of Bangladesh. In addition, five Zinc (Zn) enriched varieties BRRI dhan62 (short duration) and BRRI dhan72 (medium duration) for T. Aman and BRRI dhan64, BRRI dhan74 and BRRI dhan84 for boro have been developed and released. Emphasis is given to address the research on stress breeding enhancing productivity of rice varieties suitable for stress-prone environment. Additionally, BRRI dhan50 popularly known as Banglamati (Basmati type), BRRI dhan63 (slender balam type) and BRRI dhan81 (slender premium quality and zira type) are the high yielding Boro rice varieties for favourable ecosystem. Plant Breeders also initiated Marker-Assisted Breeding Programme to introduce stress tolerance genes including disease resistance into modern varieties with high yield potential. Of late, BRRI has released two long slender type aromatic rice varieties viz. BRRI dhan70 and BRRI dhan80 with yield potential 5.0 t/ha. BRRI dhan75 is green super T. Aman rice with 115 days growth duration and 5.5 t/ha average grain yield. The cooked rice of BRRI dhan75 has mild aroma and this variety is particularly suitable for the potato growing areas of Bangladesh.
The MVs developed in the 1980s and 2000s are suitable for varying ecosystems and have a wide range of disease and insect resistance, for example, BR17, BR18 and BR19 have been developed for the Boro areas (depressed basins) in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh; BR20, BR21, BR24, BRRI dhan42, BRRI dhan43, BRRI dhan65 and BRRI dhan83 for the upland situation in Aus season (direct-seeded Aus), BR22, BR23 and BRRI dhan46 with photoperiod sensitivity for late transplanting in Aman Season after the recession of the flood water, BRRI dhan27 for the non-saline tidal areas in Aus, BRRI dhan44, BRRI dhan76 and BRRI dhan77 in tidal non-saline areas for T. Aman season and BRRI dhan30, BRRI dhan31 and BRRI dhan32 for rainfed lowland areas. BRRI developed BRRI dhan48, a popular high yielding T. Aus variety and BRRI dhan49, a popular T. Aman variety with nizersail type grain quality and one week earliness than BR11. Plant Breeding Division of BRRI and BRRI Regional Station, Comilla have developed two transplanted Aus rice varieties viz. BRRI dhan82 and BRRI dhan85, respectively. BRRI dhan82 has been released for whole country with 5.5 t/ha yield potential and 100-105 days growth duration. Whereas, BRRI dhan85 has been developed as moderately water stagnation tolerant T. Aus variety with 5.5 t/ha yield potential. Plant Breeding Division, BRRI developed a number of high yielding Boro varieties BRRI dhan58, BRRI dhan59, BRRI dhan60, BRRI dhan68, BRRI dhan69, BRRI dhan81 and BRRI dhan88. BRRI dhan58 is the first variety developed through tissue culture process from BRRI dhan29. BRRI dhan58 is one week earlier than BRRI dhan29 with same yield potential of BRRI dhan29 and hopefully BRRI dhan58 will be the replacement of BRRI dhan29. On the other hand, BRRI dhan59, BRRI dhan60 and BRRI dhan68 have in-between growth duration compared to BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29. Importantly, BRRI dhan60 has extra-long slender grain in size. BRRI dhan88 with medium slender grain, 140-143 days growth duration has been developed for Boro season with 7.0 t/ha average grain yield.
Biotechnology Division of BRRI has developed two Boro varieties viz. BRRI dhan86 and BRRI dhan89 and one T. Aman variety BRRI dhan87. BRRI dhan89 can produce half ton more grain yield than BRRI dhan29 with 3-5 days earlier growth duration and BRRI dhan87 has about 127 days growth duration in T.Aman season but this variety can produce 6.5 t/ha grain yield. BRRI dhan87 will hopefully be able to replace BR11.
Biotechnology Division is one of the major components of rice varietal development program area in BRRI. Since its inception, the division has been working for generating rice breeding lines through different biotechnological tools. Its major thrust includes the varietal development activities for high yield, quality, stress tolerance and biofortification of rice. Currently, it is mainly involved in rice tissue culture, genetic transformation, marker assisted selection (MAS), gene pyramiding, QTL identification and DNA finger printing of the modern rice varieties, advanced breeding lines and local land races.
The major achievements of BRRI Biotechnologist are:
Methods and protocols have been established on culturing explants, such as seed, embryo, young panicle and anther of indica rice. .
Higher regeneration rates from callus of rice tissue culture have been achieved in both indica and japonica rice by using various salts of sodium.
DNA fingerprinting was done on 50 BRRI released varieties to protect biopiracy.
Efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was established for Bangladeshi rice genotypes.
Bacterial Blight resistance genes (xa13 and Xa21) have been pyramided in BRRI dhan29.
Molecular characterization of 127 local Aus germplasms has been completed.
Sub1 gene has been introgressed into BRRIdhan44 for submergence tolerance.
Promising advanced rice breeding lines have been developed for high yield and salinity tolerance through anther culture technique.
Genetic Resource and seed (GRS) Division
Very recently, eight varieties, of which two are aromatic, have been developed. These are awaiting final evaluation by the National Seed Board (NSB) for release as new cultivars. About 8,000 germplasms, most of which are local, have been collected and preserved in the BRRI gene bank. BRRI is now moving ahead with a radical idea, that of developing a new rice plant type with 'cluster grains' panicles. The new plants are expected to bring about 20-25% yield improvement over the existing MVs. about 100 tons of breeder seed per year is produced and supplied to different seed producing GO and private agencies for further multiplication and dissemination at the farm level.
Grain Quality and Nutrition(GQN) Division
BRRI cereal chemists regularly evaluate the physical and chemical properties of rice in terms of taste, cooking quality, milling outturn, aroma, protein and amylose contents, etc, helping plant breeders develop varieties with desirable grain quality.
Hybrid Rice Division
Hybrid rice is a relatively new technology for Bangladesh which has potentiality to increase yield about 15-20% more than our present best inbred varieties. So far hybrid rice division developed:
1. Released 6 hybrid rice varieties for Boro and Aman season with 15-20% yield advantage over modern high yielding rice varieties
2. 4 for Boro season and 2 for T. Aman season
3. Developed F1 hybrid seed production package of those released hybrid rice varieties
4. Developed so far 20 stable male sterile lines adaptable to local environment for Boro and Aman season
5. Identification of 10 restorer lines from BRRI breed advance lines
6. Development of 20 restorer lines from R × R improvement program
7. Development of 10 maintainer lines from B × B improvement program
8. Development of row ratio and GA3 doses for CMS line multiplication of BRRI released hybrids
9. Distribution around 1 ton F1 and parental line seeds in every Boro season among public organization and private companies along with farmers with free of cost
10. Imparted training to extension personnel, farmers and NGOs.
11. Published leaflet and booklets of BRRI released hybrid rice varieties related to cultivation practices and F1 seed production techniques
Water management engineers have developed technologies and cropping patterns that permit more efficient water use and increased crop production at the irrigated and rainfed environment.
The Major Achievements of Soil Science Division, BRRI are:
Soil Science Division :
Developed fertilizer recommendations for the different BRRI MVS.
Identified S and Zn deficiency problems in wetland rice soils of Bangladesh and devolved technologies to manage these problems.
Recommended site specific soil and plant test based fertilizer doses for high yield goals in rice-rice and rice wheat cropping systems.
Developed integrated nutrient management practices combining chemical fertilizers and crop residues/animal dung/green manure for rice-rice and rice wheat cropping systems.
Identified poultry manure as a potential source of organic matter and plant nutrients for wetland rice culture.
Recommended minimum tillage instead of conventional puddling method of land preparation for wetland rice on the fine and medium fine textured soil.
Identified chlorophyll meter (SPAD meter) and Leaf color chart (LCC) based N doses for convincingly higher grain yields with appreciably lower amounts of applied N than farmers N practices.
Identified USG technology as a potential alternative of split application of urea for higher yield and efficient N use efficiency for tidal submergence prone area where it is often not possible to follow the recommended schedule of split application of urea and where the risk of losses of surface applied N exists.
Developed participatory plant nutrient management concept for village level soil fertility mapping and field specific nutrient management packages with intimate participation of local farmers.
Develop fertilizer management packages for hybrid rice on cropping pattern basis.
Plant Physiology Division :
Many advance breeding lines have been screened to identify materials tolerant to different abiotic stresses like salinity, cold, high temperature, flash flood, etc.
BRRI dhan40 and BRRI dhan41 show and reproductive phases with salinity levels of 8-10 dS/m.
BR10 and BR23 have shown similar tolerance score at reduction division stage with the same salinity levels.
Strongly photoperiod sensitive variety is more affected by flash flood submergence than weakly sensitive and insensitive variety.
The biochemical aspects of submergence tolerance have been explored. Regrowth of a tolerant variety during post submergence period was found to be associated with the amount of residual carbohydrate content and higher stability of chlorophyll during submergence period. Submergence tolerance was also found to be related with higher PDC and ADH activity.
Younger seedlings (30 day old) from October seeded bed produced very low yield while sixty day old seedlings produced more than 5 t grain yield but thirty and sixty day old seedlings from November seeded bed can produce more than 5 t grain yield.
Seedbed covered by transparent polyethylene sheet after 4-6 hours of sunrise was found to increase seedling height with higher dry matter content in Boro season.
All the BRRI varieties have the potentiality to produce roots at 7-14 DAT even when the mean minimum temperature is 120C. However, varieties differ in root growth.
Grain yield of T.aman rice is affected by the amount and distribution of rainfall during lean period of October to November. Under such condition insensitive early maturing varieties can be harvested in early October, should be grown.
Elongation of basal internodes with thinner culm made BRRI dhan32 vulnerable to lodging.
The morphophysiological reasons for higher grain yield of BRRI dhan29 than BR3 and of BRRI dhan28 than BR1 are probably due to a) better top 3 LAI during ripening phase, b) higher crop growth rate and panicle growth rate and c) higher number of filled grain per panicle and filled grain per m2.
IR64580-8-1-2B-9-1-2-1 and IR66043-2B-R-3-2-3-3 were selected for ratooning ability.
BRRI entomologists have identified 175 species of rice insect pests of which 20 are major, 99 species of parasites and 108 species of predators. Stem borers, hispa beetles, brown plant hoppers and rats have been identified as the most damaging insect and vertebrate pests of rice. Entomologists recommended measures for 20 major insect attacks. The magnitude of yield loss due to pest infestation in farmers' fields has been assessed. Sampling methods for determining the economic threshold levels of some of the major pests have been developed. Entomologists have helped plant breeders in developing twelve MVs with resistance/tolerance to five major insects, such as, brown plant hopper, rice stem borers, rice hispa, white-backed plant hopper, and green leafhopper. Ten technologies based on the integrated pest management (IPM) approach have been developed to control rice insects. Forty insecticides that are effective against different insects have been identified. Simple techniques for controlling rats by trapping have been devised. BRRI pest management group developed management packages consisting of cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical measures (IPM) against major insect and diseases. To control the yellow stem borer, the sleeve trap (pheromone) is a very effective IPM tool.
Plant Pathology Division :
Identified 31 rice diseases caused by viruses, mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi and nematodes.
Listed ten diseases of major economic importance.
Developed screening methods for major diseases.
Identified more than 9000 sources of resistance against Bacterial blight, Blast, Tungro and Ufra diseases.
Standardized quite a good number of chemicals and cultural control measures for major diseases.
Developed integrated pest management packages combining chemical, cultural, mechanical practices and varietal resistance.
Developed and adopted by farmers, technologies for improvement of farmers' saved seed.
Assessed effectiveness of bio-control agents for disease management.
Rice Farming Systems
BRRI rice farming systems scientists have been conducting on-farm cropping systems research since 1984 to develop improved systems to increase farmers' incomes. They have conducted site-specific research in different agroecological environments in partnership with farmers, agricultural extension department and NGOs for developing technologies. They developed (a) rice-fish farming system for the deepwater areas, (b) appropriate timing of crop establishment and suitable varieties and management practices for the rice-wheat cropping system, and (c) cropping system for incorporating short-duration pulses and oilseeds in between two MV rice crops for diversified farming and balanced human and livestock nutrition. BRRI Farming Systems scientists developed 31 improved cropping patterns for 30 agro ecological zones of Bangladesh.
Socioeconomics and Policy
Agricultural Economics Division
Agricultural Economists have conducted various studies to evaluate the performance of modern rice technologies at the farm level and its impact on food security, improvement of farmers’ livelihood through enhanced productivity, income and eventually the contribution of rice to the national economy as well. Agricultural Economics Division assessed the economics of rice production, producer’s share in consumers’ paid price through value chain analysis which is helpful for the policy planners and researchers. Besides, it has also been identified socio-economic and biophysical constraints toward adoption/diffusion of BRRI developed rice technologies at the farmers’ field.
Agricultural Statistics Division
BRRI statisticians developed optimum plot size and shape of experimental plots, optimum size for number of replications and optimum size of harvest area for experimental plot, optimum plot size for estimating yield of deep water rice and sampling plan for field experiments with rice and developed sampling techniques for diseases assessment in rice fields in collaboration with plant pathologists and prepared sampling techniques for estimating yield and yield components. They invented stability model, producer and consumer preference model for BRRI varieties and econometric model for rice area production and identified the probability of low temperature stress at different growth stages of Boro rice. They published a book specially prepared for biological scientists titled “Simple Lesson from Biometry”. They find out the effect of missing hills on yield and determine optimum sample size for estimating biometric characters of Broadcast Aus rice. They improved prediction model for forecasting rainfed rice yield based on climatic variables and crop cut method (field plot technique) for estimating rice area and production also. They made software for cropping pattern survey in all upazilla of Bangladesh. In collaboration with soil science division this division estimated the spatial variability of areas in soils in arsenic contaminated shallow tube well command areas used for irrigated wetland rice cultivation. Now they enriched about 300 digital maps by self prepared and collection from other sources. Some GIS based maps are:
- Map of minimum temperature (at 80% probability level)
- Characterization map of rainfed rice growing environment in Bangladesh.
- Map of total N, P, K, R, S content in soil of kapasia upazilla, gazipur.
- Map Zn and Fe content in soil of kapasia upazilla, gazipur.
- Map of Boro, Aus and T.Aman rice growing environment in Bangladesh.
- Rice growing area and production map in Bangladesh
- Boro area map classified by Arsenic risk
- Ground water irrigation coverage map in Boro season
- High risk, medium riks and low risk Arsenic contaminated area map with different level of ground water irrigation coverage
- Arsenic risk ground water irrigated Boro area map.
- Maximum and minimum temperature and total rainfall map of Bangladesh.
- Suitability and zoining maps of BRRI rice varieties.
- Groundwater irrigation suitable area for Rajshahi and Natore district of Bangladesh.
- Meteorological drought maps of Bangladesh
ICT Cell :
1. BRRI has developed dynamic Mobile apps “Rice Knowledge Bank (RKB)”; hosting at Google Play Store & download from here.
2. e-File (Nothi) Management System introduced at BRRI for Starting and issueing various file and official letter through e-Filing (Nothi) system.
3. BRRI introduced e-GP and BRRI is incorporated with it as a first organization among the NARS institute and also a first organization under Ministry of Agriculture (MoA).
4. BRRI has Awarded National ICT Award-2016 at Digital World 2016 for ICT Excellence through Innovative Service Delivery.
5. BRRI dynamic website (www.knowlwdgebank-brri.org) has been maintained regularly by own technical assistance of ICT Cell and updated with latest information of Aman, Aus & Boro Rice varieties.
6. BRRI dynamic website (www.brri.gov.bd) has been made and maintained by own technical assistance of ICT Cell.
7. As an initiative of ICT Cell, Digital Signature Certificate has been provided by Controller of Certified Authority (CCA) under Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Division to 116 scientist and officer including DG, Director (Admin & CS) and Director (Research) of BRRI.
8. BRRI has made the web portal (www.portal.gov.bd) with both Bengali and English language. It is the largest web portal in the world and BRRI is incorporated with it as a first organization among the NARS institute.
9. ICT Cell has created own web mail ID and group mail ID for all scientists/officers and web hosting of BRRI webmail was also completed into Bangladesh Computer Council (BCC) data centre.
10. Local Area Network (LAN) has established and maintained for all scientists/officers of BRRI. Internet connectivity was established at BRRI server room from BTCL through optical fiber and provided internet connection to all scientists and officers by own server of BRRI. Already it has increased bandwidth connectivity from 40 to 51 mbps through optical fiber network from BTCL.
11. Established Local Area Network (LAN) connectivity at five regional stations i.e. Rangpur, Barisal, Sonagazi, Comilla and Habigonj.
12. BRRI has made their own facebook group “BRRI Networks” and included scientists and officers into this group. “BRRI Networks” also linked with the facebook group “Krishi Bhabna” of Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), “Public Service Innovation” and “National Portal Framework” of A2i under Prime Minister’s Office (PMO). It has maintained by ICT Cell. After scrutiny of all post, then it has published into the facebook group of “BRRI Networks”. Already 299 members are joining this group.
13. Personal Data Sheet (PDS) of all scientists, officers and stuff’s has made and stored into BARC Data centre. It is showing into BRRI web portal now.
14. Skype account has provided to all divisional, regional and section head of BRRI for research activities and video conferencing. All Skype account has maintained by ICT Cell.
15. Management Information System (MIS) software has established into BRRI server with 09 (Nine) module and training has also provided to all related scientists, officers and stuff’s by assisting of NATP: Phase 1 project. Training activities is continuing and data entry of 07 (Seven) module has already completed.
16. Computer software has developed to prepare telephone bills for BRRI officers.
17. Software has developed for the management of BRRI labours named Labour Management Information System.
Farm Management Division
Farm Management Division was established at the very beginning of BRRI at Joydebpur in 1970. This division is one of the research units of Socio-Economic Program Area and carried out research in addition to its management and support service activities such as labor wage rate, cost and return of HYV rice cultivation at present situation, dfferent weed control methods and economics, seed production of HYV rice for dissemination of variety, land and labor management and formulation it’s policy for smooth running of BRRI research. The major successful research findings of this division are:
Different methods of labor supervision viz. direct supervision, indirect supervision; job contract and contractors laborers were evaluated. Contractor's laborers could complete the operations of rice production with shorter time but the quality of work was better in the direct supervision method.
Demographic backgrounds of laborers affect the rice production practices. Early hours of the day (6-8.40 am) and younger laborers (18-32 years) are more efficient for field works. Literate laborers (can read and write) are better for research farm.
Eighteen to 32 year's age groups of labors are more efficient than older for rice cultivation.
Male laborers are more efficient for harvesting and females are for weeding and winnowing.
Comparison of the combinations of steeping and hatching, 12 hours steeping & 12 hours hatching of rice seeds are better for sowing and germination in the puddle plots.
Application of mixture of 100 g copper sulphate with 10L water in the algae affected rice field at 25 DAT is better for controlling algae that increase the growth and yield of rice.
Comparison of transplanting and drum seeding method showed that drum seeded method could increase 5-8% rice yield, require 10-15% less labor and mature about 7-10 days early.
Suitable harvesting time of rice for seed production is at 30 -32 days after flowering.
Comparison of sowing of dry seed, germinated seeds and transplanting method showed that sowing practice could save time and labor. The yield was slightly higher in transplanted practice.
Laborers' wage rate per day at rice production farm increasing year after year such as Tk. 230-255, 260-280, 270-290, 300-350, 320-340, 335-350 during 2007-08,2008-09, 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively.
BRRI agricultural engineers have developed 20 agricultural machinery/prototypes:
BRRI Diaphragm Pump
BRRI Drum Seeder
BRRI Upland Seeder
BRRI Manual Transplanter
BRRI Kishan Weeder
BRRI Rice Wheat Reaper
BRRI Open-Drum Thresher
BRRI Rice-Wheat Thresher
BRRI Power Winnower
BRRI Srr1 Drier
BRRI Propeller Pump
BRRI Rice-Hul Stove
BRRI Improved Chula
Power Tiller Mounted Rice Huller.
Micro Rice Flour Mill
BRRI Ground Nut Sheller .
BRRI effectively uses several tools for the transfer of newly developed rice varieties and production technologies to the farmers, either directly or through agricultural extension personnel and NGO's. One such tool is the annual BRRI-Extension workshop in which BRRI scientists and personnel of the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) exchange information and ideas. BRRI scientists conduct adaptive research in farmers' fields in close collaboration with the farmers concerned, DAE and NGOs to test BRRI developed technologies are tested under a wide range of edaphic and climatic conditions.
Training is an important mechanism to transfer technologies to the end users, i.e the farmers. Training offered by BRRI plays a key role in the transfer of rice production technologies. BRRI has so far trained more than 10,000 extension officers that enhanced their capability to organize and execute short-term training programs at village level extension workers.
BRRI scientists occasionally participate in Radio and TV programs for the farmers.
BRRI regularly publishes annual reports, workshop proceedings, Rice Journal and technical bulletins. BRRI scientists publish research articles in journals, workshop proceedings, and popular articles in newspapers.
- Training is an important mechanism to transfer technologies to the end users. Training offered by BRRI plays a key role in the transfer of rice production technologies. BRRI has so far trained more than 80,000 personnel on rice production technologies. Among them, 3% are rice scientists, 34% are extension personnel's of DAE and NGOs and 63% are rice farmer.
- Bangladesh Rice Knowledge Bank (BRKB) is an online repository on information on modern rice cultivation and rice based technologies. All information on modern rice production technologies are available in this web site (www.knowledgebank-brri.org). It is being intensively used by extension personnel of DAE and NGOs, private sector, and farming community